Noita Enhanced

Noita is a brilliant action roguelite (I hate this term) where every pixel is simulated. Compared to your standard roguelite, there’s a greater focus on using the environment to your advantage. What really excited me the most about it was the degree to which the game can be modded.

Under the hood

Noita uses Lua for handling all scripting-related tasks. Serialized entity data is stored as XML files and there is a heavy reliance on an entity/component relationships for organization.

Virtually all aspects of the game logic are modifiable via the existing Lua scripts. A modder can override certain scripts or XML files or append new data with relative ease.

What needs changing?

When I start modding a game, it’s usually for one of two reasons: I have ideas for new features that I think should be in the game, or I find certain aspects of the game to be lacking or incorrectly implemented. With Noita, it was a mixture of both.

I skipped over some of the stuff i made since i don’t have a gif for everything, the entire list of mods i’ve made can be found here.

High risk, high reward

In Noita, the player progresses by collecting magic spells to append to their magic wand. There are certain spells which are considered to be must-haves, and once you find them you have a better chance of reaching the end of the game… If you can mitigate their inherent risk. One glaring problem I saw with the game progression is that the variety of these must-have spells is too limited. Creating new spells that fit this category was not too hard, the biggest thing to consider was the risk/reward factor involved. In order to balance out the stronger spells, they have to be made difficult to use.

Both of these spells are incredibly powerful, but they also have some inherent risk in their use. The freezing spell creates a small shower of damaging ice particles that can harm the player, and if the player manages to get caught in the blast they will be frozen for a short period of time. The magma explosion is very short range and also creates a small shower of magma which can harm the player and ignite them. Shooting it straight upward isn’t possible unless you’re willing to take some damage from the magma that falls on your face.

Miscellaneous spells

I made a handful of other fun little magic spells that I thought fit the game well, such as a projectile modifier that makes your projectile suck in nearby objects.

Perks

Perks are a major component of Noita. The player descends through several biomes and at the end of each biome they reach a “safe room” where they can regroup, heal, and adjust their magic spells. At the end of each safe room the player is given 3 random perks to choose from. A perk changes an aspect of the player to make them more powerful in some way. There are perks that make the player more resilient to damage, perks that increase the player’s mobility, and so-on. I thought the selection of default perks was a bit lacking so I created a handful of my own.

This perk makes the player summon sprites that attack their enemies automatically. These sprites are technically an NPC, but i used the entity/component system to give them a projectile component. In a technical sense, they are a living projectile.

Both of these perks give the player an inherent trail of either fire or ice. The trail applies a burning or freezing effect to enemies that enter it, and it also interacts with the environment as you’d expect. The fire trail causes oil to ignite and turns water to steam, and the ice trail freezes any liquid it touches.

Altars

Giving the player random places that allow them to trade objects for rewards was something i wanted to do, so I implemented new altars which have a small chance to appear in any given run.

This altar makes use of the game’s pixel engine to convert corpses into gold dust pixel by pixel. It looks neat and gives the player a way to generate income using nearby corpses.

Magical stones

The world is littered with enemies and treasure, but it also contains objects the player can pick up and store in their inventory, such as flasks of water. There is one unique object, a stone that emits electrical charges, which caught my interest. I decided to make different versions of it.

The holy stone converts impure substances such as blood to water. The fire stone melts through ice and converts water to steam.

Quality of life

There were several small aspects of Noita that annoyed me, so I modded them. I don’t have much footage of these mods in action because they aren’t especially exciting.

Putting it all together

I kept all these mods separate from eachother so that i could allow the end user to pick and choose which features they want and customize their experience to their liking. I created a modworkshop entry containing the github link to my mod collection. It quickly became one of the most popular Noita mods. This, to me, is affirmation that my assumptions about what aspects of the game needed changing were correct!

Mordhau CTF

I previously discussed the process of making a custom map for Mordhau. Finishing my first map left me with a feeling of dissatisfaction, like there was still work to do. With a more complete understanding of what the uSDK is capable of, I set out with a more ambitious goal of creating a whole new game type. The obvious choice for this was capture the flag, something that i thought would translate well to a game where melee combat and teamwork are at the forefront.

Luckily, someone had already created a very barebones capture the flag mod and publicly released it. Much of the difficult work had been done, so I could really focus on the finer details and figure out what needed changing.

Fine tuning

It took several iterations, but i finally managed to massage the CTF mod into something i thought was more appropriate for Mordhau.

Stalemates

The basic CTF mod neglected to implement any sort of stalemate mechanic, which i think is a crucial aspect of capture the flag. The idea is that if the enemy team is in possession of your flag, you cannot capture theirs until the stalemate is broken. This creates a situation where both teams have to simultaneously defend their flag holder while attempting to break through the other team’s defences and kill the enemy flag holder.

A badass flag

I grew up playing CTF in games like Halo and Soldat, and one of the important concepts in both of those games is that the flag runner still has the ability to defend themselves, though it may be in a somewhat limited capacity. In Halo, you could bash people to death with the flag. It’s worth mentioning that the flag also looked really cool. Improving on the appearance of the flag was one of the things I did almost immediately.

Now we’re cooking. Achieving this was easier than i thought. The flag object is derived from the quarterstaff weapon blueprint. The skull, coiled rope segments and flag are all meshes (with all collisions disabled) parented to the quarterstaff with a vector offset to move them closer to the end. Simple but effective.

Since the flag object derives from the quarterstaff, it behaves exactly as the quarterstaff does when you’re holding it. I felt that it was a bit too weak in this state, so I tweaked its damage numbers upward slightly to give it a little more utility in combat. It’s not the strongest weapon, but a flag runner can defend themselves with it in a pinch.

A proper HUD

Capture the flag has its own unique HUD requirements, and thankfully the uSDK makes it possible for modders to create their own. I copied an existing HUD for one of the other official game types and made a few changes. Red and blue scores on the left and right, and a time limit in the middle. That’s all you need.

Both flags also have a HUD widget parented to them that indicates where they are for all players. I made some changes to the widget so that it used color instead of text to denote which team it belongs to.

Sound cues

The original CTF mod had notifications appear on the HUD for when the flag is taken or returned. I added some sound cues for these situations, and also added a celebratory noise for when a team scores.

The map

With my tweaks to the game scripts complete, i could focus on creating a rough level to test in.

I didn’t put as much effort into the visuals on this level, partly because the design was so absurd from an aesthetic standpoint that it didn’t seem to merit a serious approach. The goal was to make a map that was fun to play, not necessarily a realistic depiction of a castle like so many of the other Mordhau maps.

The colored dots indicate spawn positions and the colored X marks indicate the flag positions. It’s not immediately obvious, but the players spawned on top of a raised platform to make it a bit harder for them to be attacked as they spawn.

The general concept of this map was to have 2 symmetrical bases very close together, with a chasm dividing them. There’s an emphasis on lateral movement rather than straight lines. There are 5 bridges at ground level, as well as 2 risky bridges on the outer edges between the higher levels of both bases. In the middle, there’s a large wooden elevated structure only reachable if you jump to it from the upper level of one of the bases.

Playtesting

I thought this was an interesting layout, at least for a simple test map, but I was totally unprepared for the general response from the community.

After releasing this map i had left town for a couple of weeks. Upon returning i found several letters in my inbox discussing the CTF mode. Apparently a tournament had been organized by competitive Mordhau players and the map received a lot of attention.

So much attention, in fact, that I received a message from one of the developers for Mordhau. We set up a small group chat between myself, the developer, the fellow who created the original CTF mod, and a prominent figure in the competitive Mordhau scene. We discussed CTF and how it has the potential to be a game fit for the competitive Mordhau scene. His goal is to iterate on capture the flag further to figure out which aspects of it are fitting for competitive play.

A new version of CTF is now being worked on, with my map being the de-facto test map for it. The rules have become more complex, with players having to plant stolen flags in a specific zone and defend them. Even if this new game does not catch on with the competitive scene, I think that it has potential with the broader community.

Next steps

My goal now is to finish a few better looking maps that work with CTF. Based on feedback from players, it has become apparent that bigger isn’t always better with CTF maps. This is great news for me since it means i can produce good looking maps faster.

I’ve been able to publish a handful of maps on mod.io and they have been received well so I’ll probably rent a server for a few months and set it to only run CTF maps and see if it becomes popular.

Mordhau

Mordhau is a brilliant first-person melee game with deep mechanics and very satisfying crunching sounds when you club someone over the head with a sledgehammer.

The first person melee genre has been sparsely populated for a long time. Mount And Blade: Warband came out in 2010. Chivalry: Medieval Warfare came out in 2012 and enjoyed relatively little competition up until the release of Mordhau in 2018. Mordhau immediately took its place as the de facto first person melee game, and for good reason.

The combat mechanics in Mordhau follow the “easy to learn, hard to master” doctrine perfectly. The skill ceiling in this game is ridiculously high, but the skill of the average player is low enough that a bit of practice will make you an effective player. For those who are really dedicated to being the best at the game, there is always room to grow.

The combat system in Mordhau is so good that you could place a bunch of players in a big, flat, boring room and it would still be fun. The developers of this game were more ambitious than that, though. Perhaps to a fault. At launch time, the game had a collection of interesting maps where players have to complete various tasks such as pillaging a village or pushing a cart from point A to point B, all while fighting with the other team.

This mixture of combat with team-based objectives is absolutely a good thing, but this is where my praise for Mordhau stops and my criticisms begin.

Pick up that barrel

The main mode that players flock to in Mordhau is the objective based one. These servers can have either 32 or 48 player limits, so you get big fights that are always interesting. The maps these servers run always have some collection of objectives for teams to accomplish in order to win the round.

The basis for these objective based maps is a collection of capture points where teams need to stand in order to gain possession of that particular point. These capture points act as the focal points for the battle, and players are inevitably funneled to them. These capture points also determine where players will spawn, so owning less capture points means your team spawns further back in the map and therefore owns less territory.

These capture points often come with a prerequisite task, such as:

  • Pushable carts or siege engines which must be moved from point A to point B before your team can advance further.
  • A collection of NPC peasants you must slaughter in order to capture the next point. The defending team must defend these peasants to stop your team’s progress.
  • Buildings that a player from your team must carry a heavy barrel of explosives to in order to destroy it. Typically you have to defend this player while they haul the keg since they move slowly and cannot defend themselves while holding it.
  • A collection of buildings that your team must destroy using your weapons in order to advance, such as wooden barricades.
  • A player-controlled VIP sort of character controlled by the top scoring player on the enemy team. These characters are taller than average and have a very strong weapon, but cannot heal themselves. The enemy team must defend this player while your team tries to kill them.

I personally don’t dislike some of these sub-objectives since they tend to make gameplay interesting, the problem is that some of these things only look good on paper.

  • Objectives such as “slaughter X peasants” or “break X objects” typically do not take much effort for one team to complete. They are, for all intents and purposes, gimmicks.
  • Player controlled VIP characters might sound fun but they create several problems. If one team is known to have this objective on one of their capture points, it creates an incentive for all the good players to rush to that team when the game begins (recall that the VIP character role is rewarded to the top scoring member of the team). The nature of this objective also means that players will try every dirty trick in the book to make it as miserable as possible for enemy players to reach the VIP. On certain maps, the VIP can hide in a house and have his teammates cover the entrances with spikes and barricades. On other maps, the VIP is given no cover at all and slowly has their health whittled away by enemy archers.
  • The objective where you must carry a keg of explosives can be very difficult to achieve, and its difficulty varies greatly depending on the competence of your team and the other team. In many cases, players seem to just ignore the objective since nobody wants to be the guy who has to haul the keg to the objective and risk getting their head chopped off.

The pushable cart objective is the only one i don’t have major criticisms for. In the right setting i think it can be a good thing since it helps move the focal point of the battle and keeps things fresh and interesting.

Is it possible for a map to forgo these sub-objectives and just focus on the basic capture points though? It certainly wouldn’t be as flashy as the maps that have a jillion different tasks for your team to do in order to win. Would the primary focus on just capturing points be enough to make gameplay interesting?

This is the question I tried to answer by designing my own custom map.

The uSDK

As it turns out, this game does not have a fully functional SDK (yet). The community, with some help from the developers, cobbled together a project called the uSDK that resembles Mordhau but is populated with mostly placeholders. Mordhau is built in UE4 and as a result, many of the placeholder elements use the blueprint system. It turns out that this unofficial SDK has a lot of official game code contained within all of its blueprints.

This was my first time ever using UE4 but since i have some experience with working in the Source engine, it did not take long for me to get acquainted with the editor.

The general floorplan of my map was going to be a U-shape, and it was going to take place in a canyon. I made this choice because there was a glorious collection of cliff mesh assets included in the uSDK and i really wanted to make use of them. Every other aspect of the design of this map was just kind of thrown together on the fly. I find that improvisation can result in some very interesting stuff.

From start to finish

I maintained videos from every test session for this map since it’s always fun to see something built from scratch.

This is the earliest build i made of the map. A very basic layout lacking proper textures and lightmaps. It hurts my eyes just to look back on it. Still, it was an important milestone since I was new to the whole lighting bake process and the configuration of lightmaps.

I have an approach to design that might drive some people up the wall. I tend to start in one area and immediately flesh it out, rather than arranging a rough layout of the entire map off the bat. This is probably a bad idea for most people but I had a very clear picture in my head of what i wanted to go for.

You can see from these videos that the map was built from one end to the other in a linear fashion, with emphasis put on fleshing out each area with the “main” props before i continued forward. Lighting was still very rough around the edges since i hadn’t yet started tinkering with the myriad lighting settings under the hood.

This build was a huge step forward for me in several regards. The initial general placement of props was complete and i could visualize the map better. I fleshed out my landscape material using some existing textures from the uSDK and did some rough painting. I also did a little photoshopping to come up with my own cliff textures since the default cliff materials were mossy and not at all desert-esque.

I figured out a lot of minor improvements with this build. Lighting was improved, prop lightmaps were properly configured, capture point objectives were placed where i thought they should go, and detail props were added in some places.

It was around this time that i asked around the Mordhau modding community if someone could lend me a server for testing. This also helped with cleaning up the bugs you never find in singleplayer, and also allowed me to explore the map with other people and discuss bugs and spots that could be designed differently.

It’s amazing what a difference good lighting and a little atmospheric fog can make on a map. With this build i had also started detailing areas where there was too much empty space. I added patches of weeds, more detail props, and made revisions to the map layout in a few spots.

Lighting is incredibly finicky and takes several iterations to get just right. With this build i also added a bunch of decals to the ground to make it more interesting. I avoided large areas with a contiguous ground material since these kinds of areas really stick out as unpolished. The human brain is very good at noticing patterns, so I avoid displaying wide open areas of a tiling texture. If that’s unavoidable, i scatter detail props on the ground (such as planks of wood) and add spots of dirt or grass to break up the monotony.

I also dabbled with using spline meshes to create roads around the map to make long stretches a little more interesting. This, to me, is like sorcery.

For my official 1.0 build there was a lot of under-the-hood stuff to do. The game logic i wanted had to actually be programmed via the blueprint system.

I gotta say, the most impressive thing from my newbie perspective is the power that the blueprint system gives the level designer. I’m used to the game logic being a totally separate entity from the level, which isn’t the case here. I used blueprints for several aspects of this map.

The top blueprint was used to create a flickering light effect on the campfire. The second blueprint handles the score calculations for both teams. The final blueprint is used to make an audio emitter play a random sound from a specified list of sounds at random intervals. This is useful for adding ambient sound around the map, such as creaking wood on the wooden walkways.

This blueprint system is tremendously useful, if something doesn’t behave exactly how you want it to you can just program additional functionality for it. But blueprints also have a dark side…

This is the blueprint for my custom game state. Normally since i’m deriving from an existing game state i wouldn’t have had to change much, but I had to bypass the parent class in some cases and use its parents logic. Blueprints become exceedingly difficult to manage as they grow in size and i’m glad i didn’t have to do this too much.

Materials

Materials deserve their own section of this post because the unreal engine has such a crazy material system. There are several noteworthy materials i had to make from scratch for this project. The most obvious is the landscape material, which blends 4 different textures.

For decals, the uSDK provides the textures but no corresponding materials. So i had to create my own materials to get them working as intended.

This footsteps decal is meant to just apply a normal map to a surface to give the appearance that there are a bunch of footprints. In order to accomplish that, I plug the normal map into the normal input for the texture and then use the blue channel of the normal map to determine the opacity of the decal. This works well enough and allows me to make it look like there’s been a lot of foot traffic in certain areas.

For wagon tracks, i just combine a simple transparent decal with a normal map and reduce the opacity by 40% so it blends a bit better with the ground.

Next steps

Now that this map is fully playable and fleshed out, i’ve released it on mod.io so that server owners can access it. So far it’s not being used all that much, i’d like to do a live test session as soon as possible. Currently the map is at 850 subscriptions so i’m hoping it will get even more popular as time passes and see some action on a server that’s populated.

Maybe once it’s been playtested enough i’ll be able to get an idea of which areas need tweaking. Until then, i’m gonna give it some time to circulate through the community.

Generic Zombie Game

Another game i wrote in Lua around 2011(?).

It is a round-based zombie survival game, with rounds typically lasting 15 minutes (although often ending much sooner when all human players die). You earn cash by killing zombies which can be spent on weapons and supply airdrops. If you die, you become a zombie.

Some notable features:

 

• Challenging gameplay. A strong emphasis on teamwork and inventory management.

• A dynamic weather system. Thunder, lightning, particle-based rain and wind. The weather is randomized each round.

• Random events. They happen over the course of the round. Some are good, like scientists and supply crates appearing. Some are bad, like temporary radio blackouts. There’s even an event which causes a wicked storm using the weather system.

• Intelligent zombie NPCs that hunt you down. They can also break through doors, breakable walls and windows.

• A bunch of scripted weapons which implement scopes, ironsights, bullet penetration and more.

• Melee weapons, including a hammer which can be used to build barricades using wood planks.

• An inventory system that is very modular. You can add your own items with ease.

• 4 human classes and 4 zombie classes, each with their own perks.

• Fancy effects. Motion blur, postprocessing, realistic drunkness/infection/etc, blood spatter on your HUD, and probably more.

• Lots of gore effects. Blow the torso off of a zombie with a winchester, create showers of guts with explosives, instantly fry zombies with laser weapons and blow the heads off of zombies with pretty much any gun.

• Ailment system. If you are attacked by certain zombies you will start to bleed. If you are hit by zombies you become infected. You can also become irradiated from certain things.

• Replayability. Never play the same match twice. The infection antidote spawns randomly around the map throughout the game, and the evacuation helicopter has multiple landing zones.

• Stats. At the end of the round awards are handed out to players who have accomplished great and not-so-great things. If you’re one of those fellows who hides in a corner while his teammates do all the work then you will get publicly humiliated. If you are a skilled player then you’ll get a pile of accolades.

• Parameters that give the server owner complete control over most gameplay aspects.

• A custom entity loading system for maps which do not officially support the game script.

I originally wrote this game several years ago, before the original Left4Dead game was released by Valve Software. There are a bunch of gameplay videos on youtube, search for “ReDead Gmod” or something along those lines if you want to see more.

There are plenty of gameplay videos on YouTube as well.

The scripts are freely available: https://www.assembla.com/code/redead/subversion/nodes